PROFILE OF THE CITY
City at a Glance as per Census 2011: CITY AT A GLANCE: Source : Census 2011 Population Growth: 1901 -2011
The population of Chandigarh stood at 21,967 in 1901 and this rose to 24,261 in 1951. As such, the first fifty years saw a net addition of only 2,294 persons. At the 1961 Census Chandigarh had a population of 119,881 resulting in an absolute increase of 95,620 in its population during 1951-61. This phenomenal increase is primarily attributed to its being developed as the capital city of erstwhile Punjab State. During 1961 - 71, there was a net Decadal accretion of 137,370 and the population reached 257,251 in1971. During this decade Chandigarh attained the status of a Union Territory and the administrative headquarters of Punjab and Haryana. Chandigarh has been experiencing rapid growth in its population size.
Although, initially planned for a population of half - a - million, its population reached 451,610 in 1981, 642,015 in 1991 and 900,635 in 2001. As per Census 2011, Chandigarh Union Territory has a population of 1,054,686 which is more than twice that of the number for which it was originally planned. There has been a net accretion of 154,051 persons in Chandigarh's population during 2001 - 2011.
Source : Census 2011
Population Growth Rates
During 2001 - 2011, there has been a sharp decline in the percentage growth rate of population of Chandigarh UT. It has declined from 75.55 percent during 1971-81 to 42.16 percent during 1981-91 and further to 40.28 percent during 1991-2001. The Decadal growth rate of 17.10 percent for 2001 - 2011, besides being the lowest ever since 1951, is marginally lower than the country's overall growth rate of 17.64 percent.
Source : Census 2011 Child Population in Age Group 0-6 Years
The data on child population in the age group 0-6 years is primarily intended for calculating the literacy rates. However, it also allows us to broadly analyse possible linkages with growth of population, particularly providing leads on fertility.
As per Census 2011 the total number of children in the age group 0-6 years in Chandigarh UT is 117,953 including 63,187 males and 54,766 females. This number is little higher than that of 115,613 in 2001 population. However, the proportion of child population in age group 0-6 years in Chandigarh UT has declined from 12.83 percent in 2001 to 11.18 percent in 2011 registering a fall of 1.65 percentage points during 2001-2011. The percentage of males in the age group 0-6 years has declined from 12.36 to 10.89, while the corresponding decline among females is from 13.45 to 11.54 percent.
Density of Population
Density of Population' is defined as the number of persons per square kilometer. It is an important indicator of population concentration in an area. As per the provisional population totals of Census 2011, the population density of Chandigarh UT has gone up to 9,252. There has been a four -fold increase in population density during this period. Chandigarh UT had a density of 2,257 persons per square kilometer in 1971 which increased to 3,961 in 1981 and further to 5,632 in 1991. During this decade the density of population has increased from 7,900 in 2001 to 9,252 signifying that 1,352 more people inhabit every square kilometer as compared to a decade ago.
Trends in Sex Ratio
In consonance with the overall trends in sex ratio in India, the sex ratio in Chandigarh has been historically Unfavourable to females. Graph mentioned below shows that the trends in sex ratio are somewhat fluctuating till 1961. Chandigarh had a sex ratio of 749 at the 1971 Census which improved to 769 in 1981 and further to 790 in 1991. The Census 2001 recorded a fall in its sex ratio to 777 (by 13 points). However, a significant rise in sex ratio is noticed during this decade. As per Census 2011 Chandigarh has a sex ratio of 818 showing an increase by 41 points.
Likewise the over all sex ratio, there has been significant improvement in the child sex ratio in the age group 0-6 years in Chandigarh. The child sex ratio has increased from 845 in 2001to 867 in 2011, an increase of 22 points during this decade.
Literates and illiterates
In Chandigarh UT, there are 809,653 literates as per Census 2011 resulting in an overall literacy rate of 86.43 percent. This is well above the MDG set by the United Nations and the Chandigarh UT is heading towards universal literacy. Chandigarh ranks among the most literate part of the country.
Literacy rate of Chandigarh UT for 1971 to 2011. At the 1971 Census seven out of every ten persons (70.4%) were literate. The percentage of literates increased to 74.8 percent in 1981 and 77.8 percent in 1991. The literacy rate of 86.43percent as per Census 2011 is higher than that of 2001 (81.9%) by 4.5 percentage points.
Male -Female Gap in Literacy Rate
As per the provisional totals of Census 2011, nine out of every ten males (90.54%) and eight out of every ten females (81.38%) in Chandigarh are literate compared to the Census 1971 where three-fourths (75.74%) males and two thirds of females (63.15%) females were literate showing a gap of 12.5 percentage points. There is a marked improvement in the literacy rate and female literacy in particular and reduction in the gap between the literacy rate of males and females. At the 1971 Census, 63.2 percent females and 75.7 percent males were literate. According to provisional results of Census 2011, 90.54 percent among males and 81.38 percent among females are literates and the gap between the two has reduced to 9.16 percentage points.